Teaching Methods

Click on title to reveal more information.

Blogs

Case Studies:

Student Coaching

Conferences

Consulting Assignments

Corruption “Confessions”

Debates

Dilemma Scenarios

Drafting Laws to Address Corruption

Group Discussions

Guest Speakers

Giving Voice to Values (GVV)

Lectures

Outreach:

Projects

Reflective Papers

Reports, Essays, Research Papers

Role Playing

Simulations

Student Lectures

Student-Guided Surveys

Technology:

Videos


BLOGS
Description: This method keeps students interested and involved in discussions about current corruption issues, policies, and solutions. Guests from the industry or from other sectors could be invited to join the blog discussion. The blog could also be thrown open to the public and moderated by the students, rather than restricted to the class and specific invitees. In any case, the teacher needs to also transmit to the students the ethical issues involved in blogging.Blogs help extend discussions that could not be concluded in the classroom because of time constraints and allow students to voice their opinions via a non-threatening and non-intrusive virtual forum. They allow for extra-class issues to be brought to the table and for practical applications of the concepts to be discussed in a broad and highly interactive manner. Students are able to share other resources they may have discovered, sometimes long after the topic was treated in class. Blogs also help to keep the attention of digitally oriented students and help acclimatise those unfamiliar to this type of new media.
Examples:
  • Brazil: Nascimiento’s Six Months
  • Brazil: Palocci, Lula, and Trust Indices
  • The Turkish Football Scandal: Match Fixing, Bribery, and Intimidation
  • China’s Railway Corporation
  • Phillipines: The Armed Forces’ Debacle
  • India and the “Jan Lokpal” Bill
  • I paid a bribe – undercover the market price of corruption
Key Links:

Back to Top
CASE STUDIES – LONG CASES
Description: This interactive learning method involves several methods, such as group discussion, role play, report writing, etc. It is based on the principle of guided discovery, where students learn by doing under the watchful eyes of a teacher/facilitator.Long cases are typically 20-25 pages. A normal long case may include:

  • A description of the situation (with text questions)
  • Applications with a selection of support information (copies of documents, photos, etc.)
  • A possible solution, subsequent events
  • Note to the teacher outlining the author’s approach to the situation

Long cases are designed for teamwork; they ordinarily take place over a few days and involve a group presentation. Work with cases could consist of:

  1. Summarising the key facts
  2. Appraising and sorting of the facts and their possible outcomes
  3. Stating a problem
  4. Looking for solutions
  5. Reaching conclusions based on the foregoing
  6. Presenting such conclusions orally and in writing

Sources for written cases can be direct research projects, secondary sources of information (literature and special mass-media products), or fictional situations. In the case of fictional case studies, the instructor should devote particular attention to maintain adherence to real conditions and challenges.

The case study method helps students obtain a better understanding of management issues by giving real life examples. Major objections to the use of cases include that it is impossible to convey all details of a situation and that some of the “real” problems illustrated in cases seldom occur in the business world. A major problem is that case studies are very contextual, making it difficult to focus attention on their final message: their validity must be tested against the need of a solid theoretical background on corruption.

During group discussions of case studies, teachers should avoid pushing their own biases, allowing a few vocal students to dominate, and giving in to premature conclusions about a case.

Examples:
Key Links:

Back to Top
CASE STUDIES – SHORT CASES
Description: Objectives and learning outcomes when using short cases are similar to the objectives and learning outcomes when using the long cases. The difference is that typically, a short case does not exceed 3-5 pages of text. It usually contains a description of the situation that is less complicated than that of a long case. Short cases are designed to be explored and discussed by students directly with the audience and therefore do not require lengthy preparation.During classroom time, the educator may arrange to work with several short case studies, but in this case more attention could be dedicated to comparing the context, content and applicability of the cases. Short cases are also often used to illustrate any theoretical assumptions.Requirements regarding the content and facilitation of the discussion of short cases are the same as for the long cases. However, concerning particular fields such as corporate corruption, the educator might need to do more preparatory work in order to set the right context when dealing with the case.
Examples:
Key Links:

Back to Top
CASE STUDIES – LIVE CASES
Description: This method requires students to report live cases of corruption as journalists/analysts. The students are positioned in companies as interns/observers, where they identify ethical issues that could lead to corruption. Through investigation (perhaps with interviews), first hand information about the situation can be collected (if A/V recorded). These real situations are then reported to the class objectively. Following the presentation of each case, a class discussion/debate is held to develop various solutions that correct or regulate corruption or prevent its emergence. Alternatively, students can choose issues from their surroundings, personal interactions, and experiences with local government bodies, media, et al. to examine how legal systems and authority can prevent and address corruption.Students may act as whistleblowers, if the situation demands, giving them confidence and preparing them to counter corruption in real-life situations. Similarly, students could also collect and report good practises of anti-corruption within their companies.This method can be used on its own or jointly with internships or other methods.
Examples:
Key Links:

Back to Top
CASE STUDIES – RESOLVING REAL CASES OF CORRUPTION RAISED BY NGOs AND OTHERS
Description: The main idea here is to involve students in resolving actual small cases of corruption. Two approaches could be taken. In the first, students resolve cases theoretically. Students study cases of corruption and propose various ways to resolve them, without taking any direct action in the field. Where possible, however, they could conduct interviews. The second involves students working directly with NGOs involved in the anti-corruption movement to propose how they might contribute to the solution to actual cases of corruption. There are some logistical difficulties with the latter option, however, including the number of cases available for study (especially with a large group of students), the duration of the course (corruption cases can be quite complex and require a period of investigation that exceeds the duration of the course), and the lack of information about corruption cases (hidden by nature). Another difficulty is an NGO’s willingness to involve students in its anti-corruption efforts. Therefore, the first method (theoretically) is more suitable for the classroom format. It prepares students to diagnose and give recommendations on a consultant basis.
Examples:
  • Working with an NGO in trying to resolve various small cases of corruption
  • Doing research about various corruption cases and writing reports that offer diagnoses and recommendations
  • Working on the design of a survey intended to elucidate corruption cases and carry out a small research study
  • Creating a hotline for corruption scandals and involving the students in resolving real small cases
  • Doing a field trip in areas of high rates of corruption, on which students aim to understand the ethical issues faced by the social actors and give recommendations for action
Key Links:

Back to Top
CASE STUDIES – STUDENT CASE WRITING EXERCISES
Description: This method requires students to write (in groups) a case highlighting a corruption challenge in a business, NGO, or governmental organisation. Cases should focus on a dilemma or an instance of corruption and should stimulate discussion of strategies for regulating, correcting, or resisting corrupt “solutions.” Students should practise risk analysis, cultural sensitivity, and constructive planning to resist corruption in a variety of scenarios. The cases are then presented and analysed by other groups.
Examples:
  • A government worker solicits a bribe from a company in a procurement process. It is known that competitors are offering bribes
  • A company that is struggling financially finds itself in a less competitive position as a result of being unwilling to pay bribes or “commissions”
  • A company maintains a competitive bid by circumventing safety regulations
  • A company exploits a family connection to secure a contract
Key Links:

Back to Top
STUDENT COACHING
Description: Coaching exercises involve students challenging and supporting each other, under the supervision of an instructor, to find answers to ethical dilemmas based on their values, preferences, and unique perspectives. In short 15-20 minute sessions, students play the roles of “client” and “coach” using difficult, unresolved ethical situations that they have faced in their careers. These exercises are especially successful where the situations are recent events. Time should allow for students to switch roles.The task of the coach is to listen to the client in such a way as to create a safe, supportive environment in which the client feels comfortable to open up and experiment with various forms of behaviour. In the session, the coach may express a judgement-free opinion on the client’s situation, share his/her own experiences, and offer to play the role of the client’s colleague or manager. It is best if the coach does not give direct guidance and advice, but rather encourages the client to think creatively.The task of the supervisor, whose role may at first be teacher/mentor, is to give feedback to both coach and client on the depth of their exploration and the atmosphere that prevailed during the interaction. A more experienced supervisor can also be invited to share his/her views on possible strategies in the session.Coaching helps to develop managerial skills such as listening, giving feedback, and making appropriate recommendations based on the situation of another person. It provides students with an excellent opportunity to understand another point of view on ethical issues, learn about other strategies for behaviour in complex situations in the workplace, and rethink their own ethical approaches. In coaching sessions, students have the opportunity to voice their ethical positions in a safe environment.
Examples: Session topics can be defined by class themes or can be free for students to choose based upon their own experiences.
Key Links:

Back to Top
CONFERENCES
Description: A conference consists of a series of lectures and discussions that could last for one day or several. It could be a regular event, perhaps annual or biannual. Organising a conference prompts students to think creatively of new ideas. It is a method that engages all students, because a conference’s success is reliant upon many different ideas and modes of involvement. It draws upon students’ knowledge and experience and fosters teamwork, forcing them to overcome personal biases, be open to others’ ideas, and reason objectively. They must hold a series of meetings beforehand, including brainstorming sessions and possibly preliminary focus groups. Designing and preparing a conference is also a good test of project management and administrative skills.The conference itself brings together people from diverse backgrounds that have a common interest. It raises current topics and exposes students to field experts that complement their classroom learning. It enables them to witness industries and practises first hand and establish contacts that may help them in future.
Examples:
  • Fighting corruption through collective action
  • Clean business is good business
  • Businesses against corruption
  • Corruption in financial markets
  • Summit on anti-corruption efforts
  • How can the media help to reduce corruption?
Key Links:

Back to Top
CONSULTING ASSIGNMENTS
Description: This method allows students to practise what they have learnt, as they consolidate their learning in the process of advising. It strengthens interest and aids retention. Assignments could take the form of giving advice to SMEs interested in anti-corruption; for example, they could audit HR processes to examine anti-corruption policies’ strengths and weaknesses. They could also help companies design the anti-corruption portions of staff policies and handbooks and give brief training sessions on the legal implications and regulations of unethical behaviour.As they complete consulting assignments, students gain valuable experience that will be useful throughout their lives. Students should be given academic credits for their work in order to encourage them to take on this extra workload. Consulting assignments require supervision.
Examples:
  • Partner with a private consulting company to work on anti-corruption projects such as the restructuring of a whistle-blowing system, etc.
  • Develop a process for fair, timely, and efficient delivery of justice
  • Write out a policy on anti-corruption for a company
  • Help an SME draw up a plan to raise awareness among employees and third parties of the risks and implications of corruption
  • Act as a research assistant for a consultant or policy-maker on anti-corruption issues
  • Gather and analyse requirements for an anti-corruption system reform for a bank
  • Support an NGO on specific anti-corruption projects
Key Links:

Back to Top
CORRUPTION CONFESSIONS
Description: This method involves encouraging students to explain cases where they have themselves been involved in corruption, such as taking a bribe. It requires an atmosphere of openness and trust in the classroom. A “penalty-free” environment must be established. Follow-up discussion should focus on unexpected consequences and retrospective strategies for avoidance, as well as explaining the idea of whistleblowing.It would be advisable to use the Giving Voice to Values (GVV) approach of engaging students in discussing how they might re-visit and re-write the narrative, generating feasible “scripts” and action options in order to manage the situation without corruption. See the “A Tale of Two Stories” exercise and teaching plan in the GVV collection, as well as the “Giving Voice To Values: Written Assignment” available at the Faculty-Only GVV URL upon request (Mgentile3@babson.edu).
Examples:
  • Being pressured to accept a bribe, and relenting through fear of personal consequences or organisational influence
  • Being solicited for a bribe or a facilitation payment and conceding
  • Circumventing regulatory requirements for competitive advantage
  • Exploiting personal connections for illicit business advantage
  • Whistleblowing and assessing the consequences of reported corruption
Key Links:

Back to Top
DEBATES
Description: This method allows students to exchange opinions by talking about corruption and may provoke more robust discussion than a lecture. The framework also stimulates critical thinking and reasoning skills. The participants in the debate learn to consider issues carefully and in detail and to present their arguments in a simple, organised, and logical manner. They also learn to weigh and appreciate opposing arguments. The changes of speaker help to hold the audience’s attention. The lecturer needs to frame the debate topic properly so that anti-corruption themes give rise to debates of positive rather than negative rehearsal. For example, it could be stimulating to have a debate on value-oriented vs. compliance-oriented culture than to have one on ethical vs. non-ethical culture.
Examples:
  • Value-oriented vs. compliance-oriented culture
  • Anonymous vs. non-anonymous whistleblowing
  • Pros and cons of the CEO being the Board Chairperson
  • Who has the primary role in rooting out corruption in world soccer – the nations or FIFA?
  • Which is the current greatest corruption challenge in the world?
  • Green marketing is a social responsibility
  • Having a democracy means there will be corruption
Key Links:

Back to Top
DILEMMA SCENARIOS
Description: This method is used to expose students to scenarios that challenge business experiences with corruption. It gives them an opportunity to develop strategies of resistance to a variety of problems in bribery and corruption generally. The main objective is not to find a single “right answer” but to develop a process of analysing challenges, examining alternatives, and constructing response strategies. This should also sensitise students to understand and recognise situations that (may) lead to corruption. Techniques include discussion and role playing.
Examples:
  • Resolving the dilemma: what to do when bribery seems necessary for competitiveness
  • Resisting corruption in a corruption-tolerant organisational culture
  • Fighting local corruption in an NGO
  • Handling “unwelcome gifts”
  • Identifying grey areas in business practises
Key Links:

Back to Top
DRAFTING LAWS TO ADDRESS CORRUPTION
Description: Ask students to design new regulations concerning various corruption issues. While law students have high technical skills to perform such a task, business students could also be involved. Students should first analyse the national context and understand the legal framework at international and national levels. The professor should propose a focus for improvement of existing regulations. Their recommendation should be based on the analysis of other national legal frameworks. This method is used to improve students’ knowledge regarding the legal framework on corruption. It is possible to ask students to cover various issues regarding corruption and ask them to present their recommendations to their peers or to a small jury that includes judges or regulators.
Examples:
  • Designing a law regarding corruption in private firms>
  • Designing a law to protect whistleblowers
  • Designing a law to reduce corruption in various specific economic contexts
  • Transforming a national law according to prevalent international laws
Key Links:

Back to Top
GROUP DISCUSSIONS
Description: A commonly used method, group discussion uses learners’ own past experiences in a very deliberate manner. The method divides learners into groups of 5-15. Through discussion, they use their own past experiences, attitudes, and values to arrive at new knowledge and insights. Discussion cannot be hypothetical or speculative. It is important to realise that the discussion is not an end in itself, but rather each small group should then present main points to the larger group and, on the basis of their presentations, develop working principles.
Examples:
  • Compliance in SME firms – what is a must, what is nice to have?
  • Compliance vs. integrity
Key Links:

Back to Top
GUEST SPEAKERS
Description: A way of bringing new ideas and people into the classroom. A guest speaker is an expert in a field and is available for guest appearances. He/she personalises a topic and helps to dispel audiences’ stereotypes. Students get the opportunity to have their questions answered by an expert, whose explanations may be seen as more credible than those given by the instructor. The instructor and guest speaker discuss, previously, the topic to be covered, details of the class time, the overall course objectives, etc. Logistical details, however, can sometimes prove challenging, as it can be difficult to fit guest speakers into the class schedule and they often require travel expenses. One potential solution is for the guest speaker to videoconference into the classroom. Professional associations, such as the Government Accountability Project in the US, are good places to recruit guest speakers.

    Variation: Team Teaching

Whereas a guest speaker visits once, team teaching is when two or more facilitators can effectively combine their interests and areas of expertise and share the class time and work for the duration of the course. The facilitators decide who covers each topic, how to transition between sections, and when sessions will be conducted. Each is responsible for different sections, which are taught independently. Team teaching is idea for bringing new ideas and people into the classroom.

Examples:
  • Compliance officer speaks about anti-fraud management
  • KPMG researcher speaks about the profile of a fraudster
  • Head of corporate responsibility initiative speaks about supplier code of conducts
Key Links:

Back to Top
GIVING VOICE TO VALUES (GVV)
Description: Giving Voice to Values (GVV) is an innovative, cross-disciplinary business curriculum and action-oriented pedagogical approach for developing the skills, knowledge and commitment required to implement values-based leadership. Rather than the usual focus on ethical analysis, the GVV curriculum focuses on ethical implementation and asks the question: What would I say and do if I were going to act on my values?

Drawing on the actual experiences of managers as well as multi-disciplinary research, GVV helps students identify the many ways to voice their values in the workplace. It provides the opportunity to script and practice in front of peers, equipping future business leaders not only to know what is right, but how to make it happen.

The GVV curriculum is FREE to educators.

Key Links: Teaching Notes and B cases are available at the Faculty-ONLY URL, available to Faculty upon request at Mgentile3@babson.edu.

Click here to visit the GVV website.


Back to Top
LECTURES
Description: This method is used to formally and directly instruct students in a logical manner. It often finds support in the weight of the instructor/teacher’s experience, and this inspires the students. It stimulates thinking and is useful for large groups (20 or more), since it keeps the whole group focused on the same points while making it easy to control time.For maximum effectiveness, a lecture should have a clear introduction and summary and the content should be suited to the time allotted to the teaching session. Its greatest limitation is that the audience is passive. This can be improved by having an interval or two for discussion and by asking questions that could help to gauge learning midway and at the end. Examples and anecdotes also help to liven up a lecture and to increase retention rate.
Examples:
  • Causes of public and private corruption
  • Corruption and international crime
  • Corruption as an obstacle to sustainable development
  • Governance and transparency
  • International cooperation to resist corruption
  • Establishing an ethical workplace culture
  • Fundamentals of an effective anti-corruption effort
  • Anti-corruption reforms
  • Engaging stakeholders in anti-corruption initiatives
  • Corruption and journalism
  • Whistleblowing and the ombudsman’s office
Key Links:

Back to Top
OUTREACH  ANTI-CORRUPTION INTERNSHIPS
Description: This method is used to put students in real working situations to become accustomed to corruption issues, policies, research reports, and solutions. Students should have an active role in researching possible internships since offers are limited and demand is high. Universities should actively try to pursue partnership with businesses, NGOs, and/or international organisations to try to create opportunities for their students. It is worth noting that a majority of internships in NGOs and international organisations are not paid; as a result, it is recommended that universities should offer credit towards completion of students programme as an incentive. The positive impact of such internship experiences on the curriculum vitae of the student, particularly when these are held in large companies or major international organisations, should be emphasised.
Examples:
  • Working at a private companies dealing with corruption issues, e.g. in compliance offices, CSR departments, ombudsman offices, etc.
  • Working at an international organisation such as the OECD, World Bank, IMF, and UN on issues of anti-corruption
  • Working at an academic institution as a research assistant on the topic of anti-corruption (e.g. in law, business, or ethics departments)
  • Working in an NGO dealing with anti-corruption (such as Transparency International)
  • Working with media to develop cases or reports on anti-corruption issues
Key Links:

Back to Top
OUTREACH – FACULTY EXCHANGES
Description: The faculty exchange programme allows for exciting interchange between participating colleges and universities, including the sharing of international perspectives on theoretical concepts and current events. Faculty exchanges provide participants with the opportunity to teach or conduct research for one semester or an academic year at an overseas university, presenting faculty with unique opportunities for professional development and personal enrichment. They encourage “brain circulation” between colleges and promote scientific interactions and commonactivities at an advanced scientific level.While visiting professorships exhibit different perspectives on and approaches to ethical behaviour, they also illustrate the universality of human values – that justifications for corruption do not depend on cultural, ethnic, or economic differences. Comparing case studies furthers this objective and expands global understanding of ethics.Objectives:

  • To improve academic cooperation
  • To organise international conferences and research seminars
  • To enhance faculty members’ personal and intellectual enrichment
  • To share research data and methodologies
  • To improve public debates on corruption in general
Examples:
Key Links:

Back to Top
OUTREACH – SITE VISITS
Description: This method is used to expose students to real-life examples of corruption, practical organisational methods for its prevention, structures and processes for compliance, and ways of cultivating a culture of integrity.
Examples:
  • Interacting with members of an organisation that has experienced challenges in corruption
  • Hearing experiences of whistleblowers and how they are supported (or not) by an organisation
  • Hearing from compliance officers about methods of and challenges in implementing a culture of anti-corruption
  • Hearing practical descriptions of compliance officers’ duties, tasks, and skills
  • Learning from legal counsel about the actual cost of being implicated in corrupt activities
Key Links:

Back to Top
OUTREACH – STUDENT EXCHANGES
Description: Student exchanges provide practical training and sharing of information related to the history, culture, and traditions of participants’ home countries. Partnering institutions may send their students without necessarily receiving the same number of students from other schools.Exchanges aim to increase students’ understanding and tolerance of other cultures, improve their language skills, and broaden their social horizons. In the context of anti-corruption and integrity education, such exchanges may be designed to give students first-hand insights into the regional and national contexts in which corruption may take place.Objectives:

  • Enhance the educational experience of students
  • Strengthen networking between students and universities
  • Broaden personal and educational perspectives
  • Explore, appreciate, and understand different cultures
  • Eliminate fear and prejudice between nations
  • Enhance interest in global issues
  • Increase direct daily experience with corruption-related social problems
  • Sensitise students to ways in which different national/regional media treat integrity
  • Sensitise students to how local inhabitants perceive corruption and its socio-economic outcomes

*Student exchange programmes can be short- or long-term. Long-term is designed to last six to twelve months, short-term from one week to three months.

Key Links:

Back to Top
PROJECTS
Description: This method entails collaborative work to realise a project dealing with actual issues in corruption. Typically, students write a report in groups; however, lecturers should try to innovate, keeping in mind that the main idea is for students to take charge of their learning process. The particular value-add of this method is enhanced long-term student learning outcomes. Assessments should measure students’ ability to develop collaborative and research skills through this exercise. Upon completion of a project, students should be able to present a comprehensive view of issues in upholding integrity and disseminate effective strategies.
Examples: Innovative projects could include:

  • Designing anti-corruption policies for various countries
  • Resolving corruption cases
  • Doing a field research project involving corruption-related data collection
  • Writing a journal about various corruption cases worldwide
  • Writing a report on various issues related to anti-corruption issues
  • Compiling a list of best practises
  • Comparing case studies in different business fields
Key Links:

Back to Top
REFLECTIVE PAPERS
Description: This method asks students to express feelings – not to find solutions or identify challenges. Students are asked to write a reflective paper describing their feelings about a lecture (see examples below). Subsequently, the anonymously submitted papers form the basis for a directed discussion, allowing students to analyse their feelings and identify obstacles in or opportunities for cultivating anti-corruption strategies.
Examples:
  • Exposure to a case of corruption involving a colleague or department in one’s own organisation
  • Being solicited directly for a bribe
  • Opportunity to increase competitive advantage (or achievement of personal goals and job metrics) by offering a bribe
  • Being extorted, for example in obtaining public permissions, qualifications, or approval for a business opportunity
  • Contemplating whistleblowing
  • Harbouring the secret that a colleague is contemplating whistleblowing
Key Links:

Back to Top
REPORTS, ESSAYS, RESEARCH PAPERS
Description: This method gives students a chance to reflect on their experience and to do research on their own, either individually or in groups. It saves class time, since students do most work on their own (and learn in the process). The report itself builds writing skills, and subsequently presenting their theses tests students’ ability to verbalise and frame a logical argument. Working in groups exercises their interpersonal and collaborative skills, and they learn time management by having to to establish their own timelines and submit the report by a fixed deadline.Students could also be asked to make a PowerPoint presentation to the class. Both the report and the presentation could form part of the assessment for the course.
Examples:
  • Perceptions of corruption on campus
  • Gaps or weaknesses in global integrity
  • Towards transparency in bidding processes
  • Supply chain corruption in a multinational corporation
  • Judicial corruption and national integrity
  • Corruption in tax and customs administrations
  • Police fighting corruption
Key Links:

Back to Top
ROLE PLAYING
Description: This method introduces the topic at hand in a way that actively involves students by asking them to perform the roles of characters in a given scenario. It helps students to better understand the protagonist’s point of view and leads to deep exploration of possible solutions. It pushes them to react quickly and to use their imagination, since they have to respond to the issues unfolding, about which they previously knew nothing. Furthermore, it provides an opportunity to practise skills such as asserting values, communicating, and persuading. Those who are shy and self-conscious get a chance to overcome their reserve in a friendly environment. It also helps those watching to visualise the problem in a more effective way and to generate solutions more easily.Role playing works best for small groups (20 or less) and with clearly defined scenarios and roles. This clarity will also help manage class time.
Examples:
Key Links:

Back to Top
SIMULATIONS
Description: Simulations are a useful teaching strategy to illustrate complex and changing situations. However, simulations are (necessarily) less complex than the situations they represent. In a simulation, the student acts, the simulation reacts, and the student learns from this feedback. In the case of a simulation, the “game” involves rules, and the students must make decisions. Each of these decisions affects the outcome of the game. For the students to learn from the simulation what the instructor intends, s/he must hold a discussion during and/or after the game. This is integral to the students’ learning. Simulation and gaming can be done with board games, computer assisted board games, or fully computerised environments.In the context of “Management simulations,” Dumlekar (2004) writes that “a simulation is a replica of reality. As a training program, it enables adult participants to learn through interactive experiences. Simulations contain elements of experiential learning and adult learning […] Simulations would therefore be useful to learn about complex situations (where data is incomplete, unreliable or unavailable), where the problems are unfamiliar, and where the cost of errors in making decisions is likely to be high. Therefore, simulations offer many benefits. They accelerate and compress time to offer a foresight of a hazy future. They are experimental, experiential, and rigorous. They promote creativity amongst the participants, who develop a shared view of their learning and behaviours. Above all, making decisions have no real-life cost implications.” Dumblekar, Vinod. (2004). Management simulations: Tests of effectiveness. Online posting on Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Practise and Research web site.
Examples:
  • Car and flight simulators
  • SIM City
  • Monopoly
  • Model UN
  • Prisoner’s Dilemma
Key Links:

Back to Top
STUDENT LECTURES
Description: This learning method develops students’ skills and understanding of theoretical concepts in a practical manner. To prepare for the lectures, students should independently select and analyse theoretical material on a particular topic, reinforce its practical examples, and then present the information in a clear logical sequence. A student lecturer develops such managerial skills as interaction with a group of people and time management (a lecture is very limited in time).Furthermore, a student lecturer must retain audience attention by accompanying his/her presentation with questions and examples from personal experience.
Key Links:

Back to Top
STUDENT-GUIDED SURVEYS
Description: The main idea is to ask students to do field research, using interviews to collect information. A survey question should be given to students by the professor. Then, students should work on the design of a questionnaire, select their sampling method, meet people to interview, and then analyse the collected data. Due to time constraints, students will most likely carry out only a few interviews (rather than a large sample with a representative sample). However, their qualitative approach will give them first-hand experience of various anti-corruption issues. Some interviewed experts could also be asked to give their testimony to the class as guest lecturers. Students work in groups, either with different questions for each group or the same question to all groups. In the latter case, groups work separately on developing questionnaires but come together to decide on the final one to use. Then, the groups divide the interview sample. After the interviewing process, the groups come together again to complete one single analysis of all data collected. Not only does this learning method allow students to meet people connected with corruption, but it is also helpful for the professor, who then has the opportunity to discuss the topic of measuring and combating corruption with the students (e.g. see: www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/pe/PETS2.pdf).
Examples:
  • Survey about corruption in a specific economic sector
  • Survey to households about their various experiences of corruption
  • Survey among civil servants regarding corruption
  • Interviews of employees about their company’s anti-corruption policy
  • Interviews of young people about their perceptions of corruption
  • Survey to Human Resource Directors regarding anti-corruption trainings
Key Links:
  • Giving Voice To Values: Written Assignment – available at the Faculty Only GVV URL, upon request (Mgentile3@babson.edu) and main page here

Below are examples of various surveys (none being done by students):


Back to Top
TECHNOLOGY – CONTINUING PLATFORM FOR GRADUATES
Description: This online method extends beyond the classroom and the blog and helps to keep alumni in contact when they enter the workforce and begin to face the problems hitherto theorised about in class. They come together virtually to examine issues of mutual concern, exchange views, brainstorm creative solutions, etc. Through their deliberation via this platform, they may be able to reach conclusions – both individually and jointly – that have an impact on their work.The platform creates solidarity and a pool of ideas from which they can draw for support in taking stands against corruption in real life situations. It also enables graduates to learn from one another’s experience. Moreover, the method is particularly useful for maintaining updated social networks, informing members about events and research opportunities, and stimulating further cooperation and cross-dissemination of ideas.
Examples:
  • How to deal with solicitation from government officials
  • Getting around artificial obstacles without paying bribes
  • Doing business in countries with high corruption indices
  • Setting standards across branches on different continents
  • Anti-corruption resources
  • Cleaning up your act if you have been involved in corrupt activity
  • Societal pressures that perpetuate corruption
  • Cultural perceptions of the damages of corruption
  • Assessing transnationally the importance of human factors in company decisions
Key Links:

Back to Top
TECHNOLOGY  E-LEARNING
Description: Electronic learning, or “e-learning,” has various definitions. E-learning is basically learning that is facilitated and supported via information and communications technology (ICT). The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) defines e-learning as a broad set of applications and processes which include web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital platforms. Much of this is delivered via the internet, intranets, audio- and videotapes, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM. The definition of e-learning varies depending on the organisation and how it is used, but it essentially involves electronic means of communication, education, and training. For example, web- or computer-based training, web-based learning, and online learning are a few synonymous terms that have been labeled as e-learning over the last few years. Each of these implies a “just-in-time” instructional and learning approach.E-learning covers a wide array of activities from supported learning, to blend or hybrid learning (the combination of traditional and e-learning practises), to learning that occurs 100% online.Sound e-learning is founded on instructional design principles – pedagogical elements that take into account learning theories. Given its nature, online distance education is well matched with e-learning and flexible learning but is also used for in-class teaching and blended learning.References:Alonso, F. et al. (2005) “An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach”, British Journal of Educational Technology; Mar, Vol. 36/2, 217-235.

Mayer, R. E. (2003). Elements of a science of e-learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 29(3), 297-313.

First understanding the definition of e-learning is key to understanding its potential and the best ways to utilise online media and other multimedia resources to achieve learning goals (www.about-elearning.com)

Examples:
  • MIT Free Online courses
  • Finnish Virtual University
Key Links:

Back to Top
TECHNOLOGY – ONLINE PLATFORMS AND NEW MEDIA (SOCIAL MEDIA/BLOGS)
Description: The purpose of this method is to elicit students’ active participation in creating an online platform about corruption. Active participation will increase their motivation and their long-term retention of lessons on anti-corruption issues. This tool is particularly suitable for young students keen to use technology. The instructor should be aware of the workload involved; online platforms are only useful if they are consistently updated with relevant information and frequent online dialogues with the professor. However, online platforms that are managed by students require them to be active learners and involved in the design and the animation of the blog.
Examples:
  • Online platform to share ongoing case studies done by students
  • Press review about various current international and national cases of corruption. Students could present small cases and highlight how each case relates to the course
  • Analysis of key academic texts shared by students with dialogue between them and facilitation by the professor
  • Online platform to share the experiences of students doing internships in various organisations, but linked to anti-corruption policy
  • Online platform where students assess various organisations anti-corruption policies with intervention of people of different specialised organisations (private, NGO, state)
Key Links:

Back to Top
TECHNOLOGY – INTER-INSTITUTIONAL WEBINARS
Description: The term “webinar” is a neologism, short for “web-based seminar.” Among many computer-mediated communication systems, the webinar tool is one of the latest developments. Webinars are affordable – students can participate with a computer, video/audio capture devices, and broadband network connections. Able to transmit video, audio, and images, webinars also enable educators and students to share applications and to use a whiteboard, the objective being to exchange information in a real-time and two-way format. Webinars normally include polling and question and answer sessions. They are collaborative and provide a nearly face-to-face environment that increases educators’ and students’ social presence, which facilitates multi-level interaction. There are three formats for webinar-session delivery: (a) presenter vs. multiple participants from one site; (b) presenter vs. multiple participants from multiple sites; and (c) multiple participants from one site vs. multiple participants from one or multiple sites. Most of the webinar tools (i.e. Adobe Connect, Elluminate) provide an environment in which participants can archive seminar content for personal review or for people who missed the real-time session.Webinar sessions are appropriate for delivering topics for which the direct focus is conceptual or basic procedural knowledge, or for which the indirect focus lies on an augmentation of students’ positive attitude toward the knowledge in question. The webinar form enables students to “attend” sessions in a personalised environment, which can considerably reduce anxiety levels.However, educators should avoid placing heavy cognitive loads on students via webinars, such as teaching hands-on skills and conducting complicated activities. Highly interactive lessons should involve smaller numbers of students, so the educator can ensure that each student follows the training session.
Examples: No example could be provided since webinars are virtual events.
Key Links:

Back to Top
VIDEOS
Description: The integration of video in a face-to-face or e-learning environment can illustrate theoretical issues vividly and make processes or human behaviour tangible that otherwise would be difficult to observe. Videos provide a focus for situated learning, perspective change, self-reflection, and discussion within a learning group. Videos are effective only if the facilitator prepares questions to discuss after the show. The preparation and/or production of a video are also related to either the model- or problem-based learning approach and therefore are different depending on the type of approach.There are different types of video teaching:

  • Educational films can be presented to transmit, repeat, structure, or expand on the subject matter. On the other hand, students can also produce videos themselves. As a medium, video provides a way to objectify the learner’s perspective on the subject. A student-made video can serve as the basis for an in-depth discussion of the subject matter or serve as the completion and result of a thematic learning sequence.
  • Educators can film learners in action sequences during activities. Then, the video serves as a kind of coaching instrument, as analysis of the video sequences provokes self-reflection and feedback.
  • Further “training videos” with voiceover comments that illustrate good practise (often combining visual, graphic, and audio with text) can provide a rich and often more dramatic portrayal of management situations. Both can be applied in face-to-face or e-learning environments.
Examples:
  • “The Unwelcome Gift” – receiving gifts and hospitality
  • “To Pay or not to Pay” – facilitating financial solicitation and corruption
  • “The Mystery Middleman” – the use of intermediaries and lobbyists
  • “The Strange Letter” – corruption and social investments
  • Siemens: Anatomy of Bribery
  • Videotyping your practise
  • Dramatic representations of literary texts as a discussion tool – e.g, Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman
Key Links: